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CAR T-cell therapy - Handbook of Innovations and Technologies (HIT)

Published By: Sagacious Research | Published Date: August 2018 | Last Updated: | Report Code: SR 10843

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Summary Table of Content Description Tables & Figures

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is transforming the way that cancer is treated. It is an innovative immunotherapy treatment which uses patients’ immune cells to target tumours. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy have long been the major non-invasive treatments for cancer. However, if a patient’s cancer returns even after extensive chemotherapy, curative options are limited. CAR T-cell therapy is one such option for people suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

 

Figure – Major Players

Recent Trends

IP filings in this domain have increased significantly since 2015, with the United States and China supplying the bulk of inventions. In August 2017 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the first approval in an expected wave of novel and highly personalised therapies that target cancer and other deadly diseases in an entirely new way: by modifying patients' cells. Two CAR T-cell therapies – tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta) – have been FDA approved for treating ALL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

However, despite considerable R&D in this area, its technology remains nascent and must overcome a number of challenges for its adoption as a conventional cancer therapy for example; it’s many side effects, including:

  • cytokine-release syndrome;
  • neurologic toxicities;
  • B-cell aplasia; and
  • tumour lysis syndrome.

IP filings in this domain are directed towards developing successful products that mitigate these side effects. According to our in-house research CAR T-cell therapy depends on many important factors – the most important being the identification of relevant antigens, which are targeted by T cells. Filing trends and success rates support the effectiveness of the well-researched CD19 antigen for treating ALL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In recent years, R&D has begun to focus on other antigens such as CD20, CD22, GD2, CD33 and mesothelin, possibly because most companies are developing therapies which target additional diseases, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma. Recent filings in the domain have confirmed that identifying antigens that are highly expressed by tumour cells, but have limited or no expression in normal cells is an important factor in developing CAR T-cell therapies.

At present, only Novartis and Kite have FDA-approved CAR T-cell therapies: Kymriah and Yescarta, respectively. Technology major Cellectics has taken a different approach, using allogeneic or donor cells rather than patients’ own T-cells.

As with any nascent technology, the application potential of CAR T-cell therapy remains unknown. In addition to treating diseases other than cancer, research is underway to discover whether this therapy may be used for:

  • targeting multiple antigens simultaneously, thereby mitigating the off-target toxicities of CAR T-cells;
  • developing off-the-shelf CAR T-cell therapies (i.e., using allogeneic T-cells); and
  • reducing therapy costs.

Objectives of the study:

  • To define CAR T-cell therapy domain based on the types of cells used, antigens targeted and the diseases targeted by the modified CAR cells.
  • To identify innovation hub (research countries) for this technology and analyzing suitable market geographies for utilization of this technology.
  • To identify the major players involved in this technology and analyze them by focusing on their patenting strategies (jurisdictions, type of claims, patent maintenance, etc.), area of research, research centers, collaborations and comparison of these major players against each other in terms of IP potential, R&D capabilities and strategy.
  • To identify new entrants in the domain, law firms, key inventors and research institutes / universities working in this area for potential collaboration opportunities.
  • To identify the latest technological advancements in the domain, major IP stumbling blocks (dark spaces) in CAR T-cell therapy domain and recommendations for starting new research/ development programs.

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